Extension of IMS LD for improved pedagogical expressiveness in assessment


  • Onjira Sitthisak Thaksin University
  • Lester Gilbert University of Southampton


The IMS Learning Design specification (LD) was introduced in order to describe any learning and teaching scenario in a formal way. Its high level of generality, however, may make it difficult for teachers and instructional designers to apply it to their learning and teaching scenarios, particularly to assessment, both formative and summative. This limitation suggests the need to explicitly separate and identify the roles of learner and teacher, to identify more carefully the teaching activities of evaluation, marking, and feedback, and to integrate more fully the achievement of learning objectives into learning activities. The paper suggests an expanded IMS LD model to make learning and teaching components more explicit. By defining relevant data and structures such as competence, evaluation, artefact, and feedback, the benefits and impacts of an improved model include reuse of learning content, automated processes for metadata creation and search, additional detail to the participating teacher and learner descriptions, increased granularity for such descriptions, and greater precision in modelling the learning and teaching process.